Winter can be quite cold and snowy in Québéc City but that doesn't mean staying indoors. Residents of Québec embrace winter and that is never more apparent than during the Québec Winter Carnival (Carnaval de Québec). The annual celebration of winter, held during the late January through mid-February time period each year, is one of the world's largest winter festivals and draws thousands of tourists to the city to join in the winter fun.
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Updated for 2019
History of the Québec Winter Carnival
The Québec Winter Carnival, which began officially in 1955, is the largest winter carnival in the world. The carnival tradition actually originated much earlier though, dating back to a time when the early inhabitants of New France got together just before Lent from the end of January through mid-February to celebrate. From late in the 19th century through 1954, a carnival was held sporadically until a group of business people decided that organized festivities could provide a winter boost for the tourism industry.
The official Winter Carnival was launched in 1955 and has continued to grow and increase in popularity year upon year becoming an event that Québec is known for around the world.
The Winter Carnival in Québec is fun for everyone with a diverse program of activities each year that will appeal to all ages. Québec City is also an ideal destination for a girlfriend getaway.
Here are my picks for 10 things you must do at the Québec Winter Carnival.
Meet Bonhomme and Visit His Ice Palace
The first time I attended the Winter Carnival in Québec, my number one priority was meeting Bonhomme Carnaval, a jovial snowman wearing a red toque and an arrow sash who acts as the carnival's official representative. Each year on the opening night of the carnival, the mayor of Québec presents Bonhomme with the key to the city to symbolize his role as King of the festivities.
I had learned all about the Québec Winter Carnival and Bonhomme in my French classes as a kid so he had bona fide celebrity status as far as I was concerned. Fortunately, it didn't take long to find him as Bonhomme spends his days visiting carnival sites. The Ice Palace, near the Parliament Building at Place de l'Assemblée Nationale, which is designed and built for Bonhomme each year and open for tours is a must for anyone attending Carnival.
Bundle Up and Attend a Night Parade
The night parades that take place during Carnival are among the festival's most anticipated events. Be sure to dress warmly for the parade as Québec is one of the coldest cities in North America and and you will be out in the colder night air for some time. If you're over 18 then a cane filled with caribou, the traditional festival alcoholic drink made from a secret recipe which includes red wine and hard liquor, will help keep you warm. The parades are free for anyone to attend - no Effigy required.
Eat Maple Taffy
Trust me - you will be very sorry if you visit the carnival and don't sample some maple taffy. This tasty winter treat is made by spreading maple syrup on blocks of snow and the delicious sweetness will make you forget about the cold for awhile at least. Visit a cabane à sucre (sugar shack) to get your fix.
Watch a Canoe Race on the Frozen St. Lawrence River
One of the highlights of the carnival is the traditional canoe races which take place on the frigid waters of the St. Lawrence River. Spectators cheer on elite athletes who race their canoes across the river to Lévis and back again multiple times through a mixture of ice, slush and water. When the St. Lawrence is partially frozen the competitors have to alternate between rowing and jumping out of their canoes to push it across the ice floes. Historically, canoes were the only method of transportation across the St. Lawrence but once other viable methods of transportation became available ice canoeing transformed into an extreme sport unique to Québec and a popular event in each year's winter carnival.
Check Out the Snow Sculpture Competition
The International Snow Sculpture Contest takes place each year at the carnival and features snow sculpting artists from several countries around the world. It is incredible to view the masterpieces that are created from snow and ice.
(Editors Note: The Snow Sculpture Competition will not take place in 2019)
Witness a Snow Bath
Without a doubt, the craziest thing that I have ever witnessed is the Bain de Neige (Snow Bath) which is one of the carnival's most popular annual events. I wasn't brave enough to participate (and have no regrets) but it was fun to watch! Participants don bathing suits to frolic in the snow with Bonhomme for a few minutes at a time, return inside to warm up and repeat. As much as I love Bonhomme, there is no way that I could be convinced to do this. Believe it or not, this event requires advance registration and sells out well in advance so if you have always dreamed of playing in the snow in your bathing suit then plan ahead!
Go Skating Outdoors
There are a few locations where carnival goers can skate outdoors in the city but one of the loveliest is Place d'Youville in Old Québec across from Porte Saint-Jean and Capitole de Québec. Bonhomme, the carnival's ambassador, skates with the public on specific days and times at the Place d'Youville site (check the website for details on ice skating with Bonhomme). The Québec Region website also lists locations for outdoor ice skating in the city.
Enjoy Fun Outdoor Games and Activities
There's always fun to be had outdoors during the Winter Carnival - activities at past carnivals have included tubing, a ferris wheel, giant foosball, ice fishing, cross-country skiing, dog sledding, sleigh rides and more. Dress in layers an head out to the carnival sites - this is your chance to have fun playing in the snow.
Take a Thrilling Toboggan Ride
Take a thrilling ride on the Dufferin Terrace toboggan slide located on the boardwalk by the historic Fairmont Château Frontenac. A toboggan slide first appeared on this spot late in the 19th century before construction of the Château Frontenac. It was closed in 1981 but reopened in 1992 and has operated every winter since. There are three toboggan lanes that riders race down at up to at speeds up to 70km/hour (43 miles/hour) for just $3 a ride and hot chocolate nearby to enjoy after your run. Weather permitting, the slide is open mid-December through mid-March so can be enjoyed when visiting Québec anytime during the winter season.
During the Carnival celebrations, there is a second ice slide on the Grande Allée (in front of Parliament) where carnival-goers can rent a sled on site and ride down this 90-meter (300-foot) slope made entirely out of ice.
Explore the City and Region
As much fun as all of the Carnival activities are, you should take the time to do some sightseeing around the city as well. The provincial capital of Québec was founded more than 400 years ago by Samuel de Champlain in 1608 and the historic district of Old Québec (Vieux Québec), surrounded by the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. At the very least, plan to visit Quartier Petit Champlain and Place Royale in Basse Ville (Lower Town). Quartier Petit Champlain is a neighbourhood of quaint boutiques and bistros with a decidedly European atmosphere and twinkling decorative lights combined with a fresh winter snowfall will make you feel like you are walking through a scene taken from a postcard.
Anyone who is curious about ice hotels but isn't sure they want to book a stay can take a tour of Québec's Ice Hotel (Hôtel de Glace) which is located a short distance outside the city. The hotel is reconstructed each winter with a new theme and the craftsmanship involved in creating a hotel out of ice is an incredible thing to see.
Other nearby options include the winter playground at Valcartier Village Vacances which includes snow slides, skating paths, snow rafting and more; Wendake, a self-governing territory in the midst of Québec City where visitors can learn more about the Huron-Wendat nation's culture and history; and Montmorency Falls which is the highest waterfall in Québec and one of the highest in Canada.
Visit the official Québec Winter Carnival website for additional information on events and activities.
Need to Know When Visiting the Québec Winter Carnival
- The upcoming Carnival will be held February 8 - February 17, 2019.
- The main sites for the 2019 Carnival are the parc de la Francophonie and place George-V in the heart of Old Quebec City.
- The Carnival Effigy is your pass for 10 days of celebration at the main sites. The Effigy is A little plastic figurine of Bonhomme Carnival that you hang to your coat. Sales of this figurine are the Carnival’s main source of funding. There are some events such as the parades which can be enjoyed without an Effigy but most events require one for admission. Visitors 8 years of age and over require an Effigy to enter Carnival events.
- The regular price of an Effigy for 2019 is $15. (They are available at a discount prior to January 1st.) If you haven't purchased one beforehand, you can do so at the entrance to any carnival events.
- Dressing for the weather is the key to enjoying carnival activities as it can be bitterly cold and windy and the vast majority of events are outdoors. Layers are important and the first layer should be a wicking material (not cotton) because if you get sweaty then you will be cold. Fleece makes a good top layer. A thermal layer on your legs will help keep you warmer as well. Snow pants are also a good idea if you have them and a winter coat that will keep you warm and dry. Warm, comfortable boots are essential as you will be doing a fair bit of walking. A hat, mittens and scarf are essential. You might want to bring along pocket warmers as well.
Where To Stay in Québec City
The Hilton Québec is conveniently location located in Upper Town (Haute Ville) on Boulevard Réné-Lévesque East across from Parliament Hill just outside the walls of the old city. It is only a short walk from the Hilton to the historic Old Town, the restaurants and cafés of the Grande Allée and the Plains of Abraham urban park. We have stayed at this hotel twice (once during Winter Carnival and once during the summer) and both times have been pleased with the convenient location and the stylish, comfortable rooms. The hotel features rooms with floor to ceiling windows and breathtaking views over the city, a modern fitness centre, a heated indoor/outdoor pool which is open year-round, two restaurants on site and complimentary WiFi for Hilton Honors members.
The historic Fairmont Le Château Frontenac is a great choice for anyone looking for luxury accommodations in the city. The stunning landmark hotel which is celebrating its 125th birthday in 2018 is reportedly the most photographed hotel in the world. The hotel is located inside the walls of the old city and sits high on a bluff in Haute-Ville overlooking the St. Lawrence River. The hotel was first built to serve railroad passengers who were on the forefront of a developing tourism industry and is one of several former Canadian Pacific luxury hotels. The pedestrian-only boardwalk called Terasse Dufferin runs in front of the Château and bustles with crowds of tourists and street performers. The hotel has recently undergone a multi-million dollar restoration to blend the hotel's historic charm with the modern innovations expected by guests.
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